validation test cases

2D steady

cylinder

cylinder

3D steady

sphere

sphere

2D steady

NACA0012 airfoil

NACA0012 airfoil

2D steady

NACA63 mean line

NACA63 mean line

3D steady

elliptic wing

elliptic wing

2D unsteady

oscillating flat plate

oscillating flat plate

2D unsteady

oscillating airfoil

oscillating airfoil

3D unsteady

rotor hovering

rotor hovering

3D unsteady

VAWT

VAWT

3D unsteady

NASA SR2 propeller

NASA SR2 propeller

3D unsteady

tiltrotor

tiltrotor

3D steady

light aircraft

light aircraft

3D steady

internal flow

internal flow

3D unsteady

helicopter

helicopter

3D steady

HiLiftPW-1

HiLiftPW-1

3D steady

HiLiftPW-2

HiLiftPW-2

2D steady test case: cylinder - validation for thick non-lifting bodies

Comparison with the analytical solution: $ C_p = 1-(2sin \theta)^2 $

3D steady test case: sphere - validation for thick non-lifting bodies with both quadrilateral and triangular mesh

Comparison with the analytical solution: $ C_p = 1-( {3/\!2} \, sin \theta ) ^2 $

2D steady test case: NACA0012 airfoil - validation of the “Dirichlet” boundary condition for thick lifting airfoils

2D steady test case: NACA63 mean line - validation of the “Neumann” boundary condition for thin lifting airfoil

Comparison with the NACA method (analytical solution) at the same "ideal" angle of attack (1.6deg).

PaMS results "2D/3D" correction: $ Cp_{2D} \approx (1 / 2AR)Cp_{3D} $ , $ Cl_{2D} \approx (1 / 2AR)Cl_{3D} $ (finite wing, aspect ratio = 24)

PaMS results "2D/3D" correction: $ Cp_{2D} \approx (1 / 2AR)Cp_{3D} $ , $ Cl_{2D} \approx (1 / 2AR)Cl_{3D} $ (finite wing, aspect ratio = 24)

3D steady test case: elliptic wing - validation for lifting wing

2D unsteady test case: oscillating flat plate - validation for oscillating thin lifting airfoil

Comparison with the Theodorsen theory (analytical solution).

PaMS results "2D/3D" correction: $ Cl_{2D} \approx \left( 1+2/AR \right)\,Cl_{3D} $ (finite wing, aspect ratio = 24).

PaMS results "2D/3D" correction: $ Cl_{2D} \approx \left( 1+2/AR \right)\,Cl_{3D} $ (finite wing, aspect ratio = 24).

2D unsteady test case: oscillating airfoil - validation for oscillating thick lifting airfoil

3D unsteady test case: rotor hovering - validation for wake models

Comparison with experimental data (NASA wind tunnel test - M=0.46, Re

(blade pitch angle = 8deg, rotational speed = 1250 rpm, static CT = 0.0046)

_{tip}=2.5e+6).(blade pitch angle = 8deg, rotational speed = 1250 rpm, static CT = 0.0046)

3D unsteady test case: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine - validation for lifting wing and wake-body interference

3D unsteady test case: NASA SR2 propeller - validation for wing-propeller configuration

Comparison with experimental data (NASA wind tunnel test – M=0.7, Re=5.0e+6) at the same propeller
thrust coefficient (CT=0.245) and at zero angle of attack

3D unsteady test case: tiltrotor - validation for wing-propeller configuration @ angle of attack up to 90deg

Comparison with experimental data (NACA wind tunnel test – M=0, M

_{tip}=0.58, Re_{MAC}=0.8e+6 at the same propellers thrust (100.5 N).
3D steady test case: light aircraft - validation for wing-fuselage configuration

Comparison with experimental data (Partenavia wind tunnel test – M=0, Re=7.4e+5).

PaMS results corrected with the experimental drag coefficient at zero lift.

PaMS results corrected with the experimental drag coefficient at zero lift.

3D steady test case: internal flow - validation of the boundary conditions for internal flows

Comparison with a numerical solution (Fluent - finite volume Euler solver) with the same surface grid.

3D unsteady test case: helicopter - validation for the aerodynamic interaction between a helicopter rotor and an airframe

Comparison with experimental data (US Army Research - 6deg nose down, speed 16 m/s).

3D steady test case: High Lift Prediction Workshop 1 (HiLiftPW-1) - 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop - validation for slat-main-flap "Config. 1"

3D steady test case: High Lift Prediction Workshop 2 (HiLiftPW-2) - 2nd AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop - validation for wing-body DLR F11 "Config. 4"

Comparison with experimental data (Airbus B-LSWT wind tunnel test – M=0.176, Re=15.1e+6) from -3.2deg to 24.2deg.